Introduction

macetech.com_store_images_medium_centipedeshield_med.jpg The Centipede Shield is an add-on PCB for standard layout (Duemilanove, Diecimila) Arduino microcontroller boards. It uses the Wire I2C interface on analog pins 4 and 5 to provide 64 general purpose I/O pins. Any pin can be configured for input or output. The shield uses four Microchip MCP23017 16-pin digital I/O expander chips.

Features

Type: Arduino Shield
Function: Add 64 general purpose I/O pins
Works with: Centipede Breakout, Centipede Breadboard Breakout
Fits: Arduino Diecimila, Duemilanove, Seeeduino, etc.
Power Supply: 5V (from Arduino) and/or external power source (5V or use optional regulator)
Pin Usage: Analog 4, 5 (for Wire/I2C; 5V, GND
Inputs: Up to 64 digital inputs, COM, VIN, AUX+
Outputs: Up to 64 digital outputs, 4 pin change interrupts
Other features: Optional passthrough female headers, I2C address select

I/O Ports

Each I/O port corresponds to one MCP23017 IC. The 20-pin 0.1” headers allow access to 16 I/O, two GND pins, and two COM pins. On the Centipede Shield, the pins are numbered sequentially from 0 to 63. The pins on each port correspond to pins A0-A7 and B0-B7 for each chip as listed in the MCP23017 datasheet. The COM pad is connected to all the COM pins on the I/O ports. This allows more ground wiring or a power source to run in the same cable as the I/O signals if needed.

Power Connections

By default, the power for all chips on the Centipede Shield is drawn from the Arduino 5V bus. This is selected by the PWR jumper, shorting the 5V position. If a large number of loads will be powered by the Centipede Shield output pins, such as a large number of LEDs, then it may be necessary to use an external power source to prevent damage to the Arduino 5V regulator or the computer's USB port.

PWR Jumper

If the PWR jumper is shorting the 5V position, then the Centipede Shield will be drawing its power for operation from the Arduino 5V bus. If the PWR jumper is shorting the AUX position, then an external power source can be soldered to the AUX+ pad. Since the Arduino uses 5V logic, a 5V external source is recommended, but it may be possible to use a 3.3V source.

ADDRESS Jumper

The MCP23017 I2C interface can have up to 8 unique bus addresses. The Centipede Shield uses X00 to X11, where X is the value of the ADDRESS jumper. This allows the Centipede Shield address space to be shifted by four places, either to prevent interference on the I2C bus with another device, or to allow two Centipede Shields to coexist.

I2C Interface

The Centipede Shield uses the official Arduino designation of I2C pins, namely the alternate functions of Analog 4 and 5 on the original Arduino pin configuration. While the Centipede Shield is in use, the analog input functions of Analog 4 and 5 cannot be used. The Centipede Shield can be accessed directly using the Wire library, or using the custom functions in the Centipede Library.

Optional Regulator

An area for an optional SOT223 LM78Mxx regulator and 1210 SMD capacitors is available if onboard power regulation from an external source is needed. Power can be applied to the regulator on the GND and VIN pads, and regulated output is available on the OUT pad. If desired, the OUT pad can be wired to the AUX+ pad, and the PWR jumper set to short the AUX position to power the Centipede Shield from the optional regulator. This solution is recommended if a large number of high current outputs is required. For example, 25 LEDs at 20mA each would be 500mA additional load on the Arduino regulator, which likely would fail or cause computer problems if powered from a USB port.

INTA Pads

The INTA pads are connected to the MCP23017 interrupt A output pads. With the correct configuration of MCP23017 registers, the interrupts can fire when pin changes from a programmable state are detected. This could be very useful for detecting changes quickly without having to poll all the I/O over I2C frequently. At this time, the Centipede Library does not yet provide an API for accessing the interrupt functions, but that feature will soon be available.

Code Example

The Centipede Library has been updated to work with Arduino 1.0

The following code example illustrates using the Centipede Shield with the Centipede Library (download here). The library attempts to encapsulate the Centipede I/O access functions in a way that is familiar to Arduino users. the library supports using two Centipede Shields automatically; pin 64 is equivalent to pin 0 on the Centipede Shield with the ADDRESS jumper set to 1.

  • .digitalWrite([0…127], [LOW…HIGH]) - Acts like normal digitalWrite.
  • .digitalRead([0…127]) - Acts like normal digitalRead.
  • .pinMode([0…127], [INPUT…OUTPUT]) - Acts like normal pinMode.
  • .pinPullup([0…127], [LOW…HIGH]) - Activates internal 100K pullups on inputs when HIGH.
  • .portWrite([0…7], [0…65535]) - Writes 16-bit value to one chip. Useful for writing 16 outputs at the same time.
  • .portRead([0…7]) - Reads 16-bit value from one chip. Useful for reading 16 inputs at the same time.
  • .portMode([0…7], [0…65535]) - Write I/O mask to one chip. In binary, a 0 means output and a 1 means input. Easier to use than a long list of pinMode() commands.
  • .portPullup([0…7], [0…65535]) - Set pullup mask on one chip. In binary, a 0 means no pullup and a 1 means pullup is active.
  • .init() - Sets all registers to initial values.

Extract the Centipede Library files into a Centipede directory in your Arduino Libraries directory. It will be available the next time you start the Arduino environment.

// Example code for Centipede Library
// Works with Centipede Shield or MCP23017 on Arduino I2C port
 
#include <Wire.h>
#include <Centipede.h>
 
 
/* Available commands
  .digitalWrite([0...127], [LOW...HIGH]) - Acts like normal digitalWrite
  .digitalRead([0...127]) - Acts like normal digitalRead
  .pinMode([0...127], [INPUT...OUTPUT]) - Acts like normal pinMode
  .portWrite([0...7], [0...65535]) - Writes 16-bit value to one port (chip)
  .portRead([0...7]) - Reads 16-bit value from one port (chip)
  .portMode([0...7], [0...65535]) - Write I/O mask to one port (chip)
  .pinPullup([0...127], [LOW...HIGH]) - Sets pullup on input pin
  .portPullup([0...7], [0...65535]) - Sets pullups on one port (chip)
  .init() - Sets all registers to initial values
 
  Examples
  CS.init();
  CS.pinMode(0,OUTPUT);
  CS.digitalWrite(0, HIGH);
  int recpin = CS.digitalRead(0);
  CS.portMode(0, 0b0111111001111110); // 0 = output, 1 = input
  CS.portWrite(0, 0b1000000110000001); // 0 = LOW, 1 = HIGH
  int recport = CS.portRead(0);
  CS.pinPullup(1,HIGH);
  CS.portPullup(0, 0b0111111001111110); // 0 = no pullup, 1 = pullup
*/
 
Centipede CS; // create Centipede object
 
 
void setup()
{
  Wire.begin(); // start I2C
 
  CS.initialize(); // set all registers to default
 
  CS.portMode(0, 0b0000000000000000); // set all pins on chip 0 to output
 
  //TWBR = 12; // uncomment for 400KHz I2C (on 16MHz Arduinos)
 
}
 
 
void loop()
{  
  for (int i = 0; i < 15; i++) {
    CS.digitalWrite(i, HIGH);
    delay(10);
  }
 
  for (int i = 0; i < 15; i++) {
    CS.digitalWrite(i, LOW);
    delay(10);
  } 
}
/home/macetec/public_html/docs/data/pages/centipede_shield.txt · Last modified: 2012/02/21 14:14 by macegr
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